Santiago Calatrava - The MIT Lectures #1: Materials and Construction Process

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ANDERSON: Welcome, my name to Stanford Anderson. I'm the head of the Department of Architecture. Welcome to the first of our fall series of lectures. We have an unusually full program this fall because we have incorporated two series inside the full series. So tonight you'll be hearing, as you know, the first of three lectures by Santiago Calatrava. Next week, at this same time and place, we will have the first three lectures by young French architects, different architects each time in that series. That's co-sponsored with the University of Virginia and Catholic University in Washington.

And then there will be a few other lectures as well. I'm only going to mention one of them tonight, the fifth Pietro Belluschi lecture by Renzo Piano on October 28th. And I mentioned that not only because it's a very special event in our fall term, but also to say that some of the books that show the works of Renzo Piano have been put on reserve in Rotch Library under the fall lecture series. So you can find the work to look at there. And having mentioned that, we've done the same relative to Santiago Calatrava, you'll find a group of monographs and books on his work also on reserve.

We are sponsoring the lectures of Santiago Calatrava jointly with the Department of Civil Engineering. And in a few minutes I'll ask Raphael Bras, the head of the Department of Civil Engineering, also to welcome Santiago Calatrava to our series of lectures. So this is a kind of double introduction. And I know that he has a lot of slides and many things to say, so I will make the rest of my time rather brief. Only to say that Santiago Calatrava is still a very young man and with a very large production. When he visited us about a year and a half or two ago, we enjoyed an excellent lecture on his work.

And, in the meantime, we have pursued to have continuing relations with him. And this is what we think is, and hope is, the first fruit of that discussion and connection with him. And he has prepared three special lectures for us, which in turn, we hope will be another book to put on reserve in the library later. Santiago Calatrava has, as I said, built already a great deal. You'll see much of that in the lectures, so I'm not going to be enlisting the names of the works. And similarly, that has resulted in any number of prizes and any number of exhibitions, and that too, is just too numerous to mention.

So I think there is no question that the work that he shows will speak for himself. Just one last note on my part, and before I turn to Raphael Bras, it is our hope, also, that-- it's our plan, and we think it will be realized, that we will have an exhibition of models of Calatrava's work in the Compton Gallery starting in the middle of November, just after his last lecture. Raphael, if you would make a final introduction.

BRAS: About two years ago, I was taking a sleeping walk in Valencia, Spain, when I saw all this unusual, but simple and very beautiful bridge, which really woke me up. At that point, I turned around to the person who was walking to me and asked, who was the architect? And they said, it was Santiago Calatrava. I frankly, must admit that at that point, I didn't know who Santiago Calatrava was. But I came quickly, I'm a quick learner. And figured that I-- that I'd better learn. And immediately proceeded to try to remedy my ignorance.

I asked a colleague of mine, Professor Herbert Einstein, to help me on that. And Herbert took the initiative to contact Dr. Calatrava, and to begin also, thinking of how we could get him involved at MIT. It turns out that shortly after, he came and gave a lecture here, invited by the Department of Architecture, the rest is history.

We're here for a series by a very distinguished architect. I am very pleased that I have learned a lot more about him, and I hope to learn a lot more. And I'm also particularly pleased to see a joint collaboration between the Department of Architecture and the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. I think the idea of the engineer as an architect, and as an architect and as an engineer is something that we need to do better here at MIT, and I hope this is the beginning. Without further ado then, Dr. Calatrava. Thank you.


CALATRAVA: Ladies and gentlemen, thank you very much for the possibility of speaking here in this school. I think-- that is, I would like to make a very brief introduction to the context. And after having been a science student for a long time, something like 14 years, studying in Valencia and in then Zurich, I started my proxies, architect and engineer. And during 16 years, I has been, exactly now in November, 16 years, I has been working very intensively in the proxies. They only contact that I has had to institutions, like this here, was sporadically giving a talk.

And for the first time, I took a commitment to give a series of talks and the perspective to communicate this experience as good as I can. I think it makes sense, because 16 years is a period of time who are as important in my life as the previous experience of almost 14, 15 years. And also because 15 years define a little bit of a generation, also [INAUDIBLE] up in the life of a person.

And I am convinced that the things that I am saying, I am saying it to the nation generation because those 15 years define circle around a person of some 30 years. So people who will [INAUDIBLE] to other styles and will find his own way. As much as I also integrate the works of those who has been working before me, in all due modesty. I think also, it makes sense, also because the previous time that I spent, because also I got a lot from the University, or I got also a lot of my teacher. I also was quite a-- if not a good, a very pretty patient student, because I spent a long time. And I think this is an important point to underline.

The second point is that I has tried to structure in a very simple way. You see, which is probably the wrong way to do it. And also to speak on the thoughts, you see, on the experience in those years. And again, after having tried in several-- or integrated in several ways, I thought it best it is to speak on my own experience. Because, in fact, this is the only thing that can communicate. So I speak on my own experience. I mean, to look back to the work that I has done, and to try to introduce you in very essential thoughts and the steps who permit me, you know, to continue working during those years. And to go from one building to another and try a little bit to implement a little bit more, and a little bit more thought, and just, in a very elemental and dyadic way to communicate you, this experience of the 16 year.

Then once I decided that, I had to divide it in several groups. And so I chose the idea of the material as the very first one. Because the material seems to me, you see, as an approach to the architecture maybe the most substantial way. I mean, from the ruins of the architecture at the list, you see you have just some stones there, something like that. So, I mean, the material part of the architecture is, in my opinion, let's say the physical support of the architecture, seems to me to be very, very important and very fundamental. And I also found a course citation, you see, on this, and it is reading-- or trying to find an old definition of architecture. You see, a very old definition of architecture, or what is an architect, let's say.

I found one who I think, has been transmitted into old days, almost literally untouched, I suppose untouched, and who is very old. It comes from the time of the Egyptians. From the time of the construction of the pyramids, 6,000 years ago, something like that. Even more maybe, 7,000 years ago. And it is interesting because it is-- the definition is very much related not only to the person, but also very much to the materials that this person can work. With so for example, they speak about gold, bronze, brass, stone, wood. And could you imagine gold, bronze, and silver, you know, they were all precious material.

You know, today you see gold is maybe more precious than silver, much more than bronze, but at this time, to go with this material was very difficult. And to work with them, or certainly a means to proceed technology and things like that. And I will read you that. And the Lord spoke into Moses saying, see, I have called by name Besalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and understanding, and in knowledge, And all manner of workmanship to devise skill for works, To work in gold, and silver, and brass, and in cutting of stones for setting, and carving of wood to work in all manners of workmanship.

Well this is from the Exodus. And it is interesting, you know, in the verse number three, it say, I help filled him with the spirit of God in wisdom, understanding, and knowledge. And immediately after that, in the verse number four, he said, to devise a skill for works in gold, silver, and brass. If you make a correspondence between the two verse, you will understand also that for an architect, or an engineer, or whatever, because at this time there was not difference, you know, between architects and engineers. The idea of wisdom, understanding, and knowledge for these man was like gold, silver, and bronze. Precious materials of the time.

And I think it's very expressive, and very alive, because at the same time, you see at the one side you have almost like, you have the person you see with those quality, on the other side, you have the materials. So let's say, in these terms, I thought that probably is a good first step to go ahead in the understanding of architecture. At least to understand what is concrete, what is steel, what is wood, you know in our time. How to use them, what they signify. You see, what are the form that you can achieve? What are the difference between the forms? Can you go from one form to another using the same material? And this is what I want to try showing you, simply you see, from the very first steps into the last works. So--

This is a small figure done by using toys, pieces of toys, and in fact, it's interesting because you'll see you have-- in the figure itself-- you have-- you have here a part, then another one. Then you have a whole key and you have two small supports, like simple supports. And then you have a stone here hanging with a cord around, and hanging there. And then the force of the stone goes through all the two pieces and it materialized, as you see, in stone, wood, and then parts of steel, and then here on hooks, you see, also special ones.

So it's a very simple way, it's like a small toy, but a lot of context is there. You see also if you started to look at the different pieces of the toys, how the colors are put together, which it is simply a [INAUDIBLE] situation. But I mean, it is-- there is no doubt, you see that just a way to hold a stone in the air is a matter of expression. And the complexity you see that something can achieve under relation. You see, here the point, for example, this part working intention, the hole key also clearly working also in intention. And also this is a spindle, separating both things working under compression. And the symmetry of the whole figure, is so important.

This is one of the very first works that I has done. It is nice because it's related to a music school in San Gallan. This is a music school for children. And they has had an auditorium here, and then they need to extend it to the next room. And so, we has to just simply to take away the all in between. Was, let's say, something like 20 feet, or maybe a little bit less, by 10 feet high. And just to support the three floors over there, it was necessary to build a frame and so it came to this piece here. And the idea of the piece is very simple, it has two parts, who are done in middle, symmetric, and then they are supported here, in a support who goes along the wall. So a person will be something like that, here. And then, you see, this is a simple support, and then the five intentional elements. Five.

Then, I mean, it is-- then, let's say, here, up in the top, I have also two profiles who are down in double Ts. you see, the wall was coming like that and then I has had to double Ts. Small, two Ls, you call that two Ls. And then also, small links here together. And, you see, in order to make it a bit more, I decide to separate-- the elements were working in tension, making them polish. It was holding steel, only one material. I have to say, I decided to do only one material, like a game, one material. Like with the churches who are only done in stone, or many buildings who are simply done--

Then, the other was just black painted, I'm doing here with red, but it was dark, like painting. And then the steel goes behind and with a small element like these, you see, heats the two plate-- who are two symmetrical plates under both sides. And then I say also, I should not use any bonding system. I mean, the key of the evolution of the technology in steel is very strongly related to the way, not only the quality of the steel that you produce, but also the links between the steel. When you bolt, when you rivet, or when you weld, you see, this makes extremely big difference in the use of steel, and in the possibilities, and the capacity.

So I decided to don't use any link. So I has always-- for example, if this element is working in tension, I have to turn it back and link it here where they where the exchange of forces has happened, in this point, behind. And also, even here you see, the forces, the width coming here. And even these small plate, you see, this is just a pendular support, and it is just a hole with two pins.

So in a way it is like making a working-- working with a castle. You know, making with play cards, like making a castle. And then, of course, using, to stabilize the whole thing, the frame of the building itself. Involving, in this, you see, the part-- the upper part of the building and also the side, which is stabilizing this column and bringing the [INAUDIBLE]. And so it is this first statement.

I don't know what it-- you see here the details of the joint here. The details of the joint and also here you see the polished metal. You see also here, the place. If we could see the other slide, I don't know if it happens, we will see also the-- This is, of course, this was also possible because the people working, although they say it, also are very high level of craftsmanship. You see, too, I mean, to make it in a big and very precise way.

AUDIENCE ONE: Changing a bulb.


CALATRAVA: Excuse me?

AUDIENCE ONE: The bulb is burned out.

CALATRAVA: Ah, I see. Yes. Okay. So-- what also-- you see, in this type of approach there is always a little bit a place also for the, let's say, for-- why five? You see five elements. In the fact, you see the rotation point is here, and each one of them became, if not equal force, of course, because those who are more separated, they have a larger movement when this will descend, but in any case, all works under tension. I chose five, and start to do one-- which it is a rhythm dance, you understand-- but I do that. I could also even use two and say if one will not work, there will be another one who will work.

But I decided to do five because, as you know, the music, you read it over five lines. And then I found it is a good reason, isn't it? To introduce-- I mean, it could be also, I don't know, you see the beam could also maybe suggest a guitar or something like that.


But this is not the case, it's certainly not the case. But the five lines, in any case, I think you make also something like that here, when you started putting in the note. Yeah, okay, you see it here, thank you. You see here, the pendular element here, and then the five other-- then I discovered also, on the way I discovered also that the width of the tension on member [INAUDIBLE] was so big that they was simply hanging, isn't?

Even if working, you see, I neglected the problem of their own width of the element. You see, who will, for example, cable [INAUDIBLE] bridge will be fundamental because you have-- it will even change the [INAUDIBLE]. Well, it is a kind of way to understand what these hanging and very long cables. And then what we do, is is we put small support in between. And load them in the lowest one, you see it well here. You see, is was a kind of improvisation as you see here in this point.

Yes, now you see another type of work that I has done. Was also related to interventions in other buildings. For example, in this case, this is a school and I has had to introduce an entrance, a central element, a roof of the library, and also roof de aula. And I thought, you see, I wanted to go one step more and introduce another element, let's say. You see, and the element is not only the material quality that they will change in several cases, you see what I mean? I will work for them, let's say, one part in concrete and steel, another part working purely in steel and glass, and other one wood and steel, or wood and concrete.

And so having chose this dialectic of changing material, to experiment in each one of the different solutions. You see, a new solution and for our roof with that particular material, I thought, also, it could be interesting to work with the light. You see, which it is, in my opinion, the light-- I mean, the control of the light for that particular space. And this is the entrance. In the entrance, the idea of the entrance is, it was generated by the fact that the plan was like that.

And then I put with that diagonal element, you see I create the canopy. Very strongly related to geometry, you see. Will consist in recreate, let's say, two cones with a diagonal position arc, and with entrance here. And these will work like that, and like that in the other direction. And not only like, this but also to have the cross-section with a pipe who is-- who has a certain resistance to the torsion and will take also the other with it, to have it related to the facade. So in the fact, you see, even if this has a torsional stiffness that I has maybe used-- also other things like bridges, the torsional stiffness off the pipe or the axle pipe.

But in this case, I fix it into the top of the facade with which I create a link between facade and canopy. And so the facade of the canopy works together, they are solved in the same gesture and they also coherent as far as-- as far as you see-- as far as the facade and let's say the canopy has to do an ensemble, has to became a single thing. You see here two views of the entrance. And then you see also, a detail at the end with how it arrives with this kind of penguin tie here in the back, where the water is coming down.

Also there are some details, like for example, the glass don't touch the extremity, not here more, because it's covering the whole facade, but not at the-- and then you see also some details from the interior into exterior. There was a small intervention but that, for me, was, as I tell you, as a kind of a workshop-- experiment workshop-- was very, very important. Also, you see it was a time in which the relation with the craftsmen became for me also a kind of prolongation of new school.

And of course, you see, as it happens, in the older you see the basic idea of-- independent of the fact-- of the construction, it is clear looking at the especially at the elevation, that the idea you see of a leaf, or the idea of a palm. You see? Very figurative idea, you see, I mean, it is not-- you see, is was part of the design. This is without any doubt-- or I mean, or even it could be maybe more beautifully like that.

So there is certainly, behind the very first approach, the free approach, into the architecture that I has had, looking for inspiration in natural forms. I'm also looking to find my own language, you see, in a very simple approach and a simple observation of these what was surrounding me or things who motivate me was a very important. As much as, let's say, almost as much as the material or--

You see here also, this is our second space. When you come into the interior of the school, you are arriving to the center of space. The photograph, they are not terrible, but it doesn't matter. You maybe understand, there is a kind-- you see, there is a copula who is circular. Lied And then the copula is used for, in this case, vault. And as you see, observe also the fact of the light coming in and the way how the light is here goes decrease. You see also how the border disappear-- the back border in the light. You see also here, the part in steel, the tension member, also the spindles here, supporting a beam, part of those triangles. And the planter in the center of the copula.

And, you see, in this case, the choice of the shape was very simple. You see going out from a circle, sub-dividing it in radial segments, cutting them here. And those radial segments was done using a vault. The basic shape was something like that. Let's say something like that.

And in this vault, I cut a part here, who makes a plan. keeps a shape like that, opening the interior and leaving the possibility of putting here a single element to signify the compression in this part here. At the other side, in elevation, you will see the element working like that and having a resultant. I separate sometimes just in order to put in seen all that different type of support and recreate the free ring around who is the ring that you are seeing in the cross-section that we saw before.

You see it here also very well. You see this element here. You see also this element here, and then the support behind, this is the support in which the width is coming into the wall. Then this is a ring who is floating. So the idea of the ingravity was signified by the fact of showing the tension ring and hitting-- or not hitting, but putting back in the corners here the real support of the cupola.

So if you have seen the [INAUDIBLE] as it is the case, and this is, let's say, it's visible, but is not significant, then you get the impression that the whole thing is floating in the interior space. And as you see also, this seems to me to be important that it's clear when you see all those shapes like that, pretty much the whole shape can be associated to the petals.

Now you see there was a library also to be covered. And first of all, I thought also important as before is the idea of the light, even more in a library. The control of light and the relation of the light with space is very important. So I thought it is necessary to liberate the walls and to have done tangential light, as [INAUDIBLE] maybe will do. It is also important to watch how other people has been reacting to the material and to the use of light.

And so I decided to make the roof [INAUDIBLE] floating. And as you see, the main support is a column. The water is coming in. And this is a kind of shell who is subdivided in several shell. So it's not an orthodox shell in terms of hyperbolic, parabolic, or segmental feet. But it's quite a free form, however, in several directions, sometimes we have right lines or almost right lines.

Having as a plan such a situation, I thought this is the precision of the roof. So the plan of the roof, but it was very rigid. And then I chose almost the center of gravity. Is not the case. And then I decided to hold translaterally the corners in order that it doesn't move laterally. You see that it is well-fixed. But the whole support-- let's say the width is going through the central column in which also the water is coming down. And then light will descend along the walls tangentially here.

Now about the genesis of the idea, I think it's important to signify that here I started thinking on the idea of a open book and also the idea of-- again, like in several other cases-- very much the idea of the elevation of the roof, of emphasizing very much the idea of floating. The roof should float, which it is also a [INAUDIBLE]. The idea of lightness is very much given often because the counter-precision of materials or of statical systems. It was before the spindle the support in relation to the roof, even if this is heavy and this is light.

But this counter-position of the two materials and the light coming on the side will make the whole roof seems to fly. It means the book, who was, in fact, the basis of the shell, was also conceived like this, so, in a way, wanted to become also at the other side. Let's say something like a bird or something like that. So it is a kind of superposition of ideas, but coming simply from the idea of a book. Because if you look, you see it here also. I don't have any-- but it's the idea of a leaf or something like that holding the support.

Yes, you see here also the corners with the supports that I showed before. You see the small links just to stabilize the shell-- the shell who turns around and also you see here, the interior of the library with the shell, very close also. The physical presence of the shell interior was also very important.

Now you see something that also is very interesting. It is the construction process, how you build things. And sometimes you see the way how you build things, decide also the shape of them, the width of them. Because you have to transport them, or because you have to produce them somewhere and transport it, it is sometimes very important to recognize those things. In my opinion, until now, they have never been [INAUDIBLE] but they influence very much the way things are done.

And you see here, those are parts of the roof of the [INAUDIBLE] when they were transported. And here also how they were put over the roof, also making a wooden shell over there with arcs at the interior. You see also here how they came down and adjoined. This is also very interesting. You see the fact of the column, they support.

And also, you see something who is very interesting, especially when you precast. I like very much brute concrete, concrete done on site, but also precasting concrete can be very nice. This is, for example, a formwork because then the freedom in the choice of forms and the complexity that you can achieve is even [INAUDIBLE].

And remember, concrete in my mother language, in Valencia, we used to say formigón. Formigón comes from forma. In Spanish, you also say hormigón with h. Hormigón is f of the forma. Formigón means is the material that you can give a form. This may be a good definition of concrete. And so you are very free in choosing the shape, and also the quality, and the texture, and many other things.

When we wanted to produce the pillars of this space, if you have to do a formwork who is, let's say, three meters high, once you fill it, you get huge pressure. And then you have to do a very complex formwork. And you have to pay a lot of money for it. So how to do that with less money is just cut the column in two and make two formworks, and pull it horizontally, and then glue the two parts.

And this is what we have done here. You see here the two parts of the column produced horizontally. It has also another advantage. All the parts has a formwork. The bases, everything is concluded. You don't have any place in which you has been casting the concrete. You see here this is a concluded column. You see here also detail of the joint that we will have later on. You see here also putting the two forms. This should be the other way around, but it doesn't matter.

And then you see here also taking out from the formwork. And here also how the columns work together. Then we use epoxy and also pins in order to have resistance into the shear force, the transverse of the system. And you see these are the concluded columns, and this is the side of when we have been putting the columns there.

Then you see also on the side, it's interesting, I decided to put a small plate here because the lintel between wood and concrete is done by this plate and another transversal plate who is coming in. And then this is the pin who links the plate, who defined in a way the articulation. You can always read the joint of the column. You see the vertical joint.

And then this is some views of the [INAUDIBLE] when it was concluded. So if I may just give you some references to this shape, what I wanted to achieve was quite simple. First of all, I proposed not to put the roof into the wall, but to make it merge here, And then to create a parabolic arc of the interior. Then to have here the shell independent, and then to have here a gutter, and then to a very light window longitudinal. Because this will also bring light in the interior, and especially emphasize very softly the lighting here, and also bring transparency with all those elements were all regularly and all equal.

They have all the same size. Let's say they are all pieces of wood by something like three inches by three inches, very standardized. This is a laminated wooden arc, and this is another one. And then in the top, I have the shell. You see a [INAUDIBLE] for wood over there. And this is the head of the column that you saw before. Well, this is a bit wider in the proportion. A person is something like that in relation to the whole thing. And someone sitting will be something like this. But this is much wider.

So basically, this is a parabolic arc who is holding the width of the whole roof inside. And with itself, it is stabilized by those [INAUDIBLE] element who are transferring the width of the roof into this arc. Maybe another point that can be interesting to know, it is again, like in the entrance, the idea of a boundary. And also, what I thought is interesting-- this is maybe also [INAUDIBLE]-- but I feel very free. I feel very free, at least at this time. I continue also feeling like that.

I was thinking I would like to express the idea of the force coming here. And many people think this is a kind of reminiscence of Corinthian capital which is not the case. It is more the head of-- It's interesting also, if you want, a Corinthian capital could be also the head of a woman. So, I mean, we are not very far away.

And here, you see also the views of the space. You It's also interesting because space is still very intimated. The decision of also using wood-- I think there is also a picture in which you can see how they light-- yes, this is good. This is with artificial light. We have lamps in the wall. When you lighten the interior of the wooden path, you became very nice. You see a very nice contrast between the light of the interior, and the light at the exterior, and the shadow patterns also of the views into the roof.

This is also interesting to see this project close to the other. I always spoke about a kind of research-- recherche patiente-- in terms of an architect. I know that at Le Corbusier, we'll say recherche patiente because you need a lot of patience until a building is concluded or something like. You need really to be patient a lot. And it's interesting also the fact that once you've discovered a shape, and you have used a material, you are always or often tempted to change material, and to use almost a similar shape in another context.

This happens in this particular project in Toronto, which is a gallery in the center of Toronto. The building here is the Toronto Dominion Bank, done by Mies van der Rohe in downtown. And this is, I think, the Bank of Commerce, done by IM Pei in the center of the city. And this is a galleria, who I will show you.

Basically, the idea is very much inherent of the idea of the order. However, what there was wood is here done using steel. And also, the control of the light was much more laterally done. And here, the light is just filtered through the steel pattern into the ground with the shadows in the ground. If you look in elevation-- I don't know if I have on a slide-- also interesting is the fact of the relation of this galleria drop in between of the offices and also the [INAUDIBLE] Building and into the Heritage Plaza. You have this kind of steel construction which just drops in.

This could be a good understanding of the problem with this if you have on the street, and then you have trees on both sides of the street. You can define an alley. For me, it was also easy. Then the trees indicate that they are very simple. They are just going like this. And then the beams just put over there. Then it's interesting when I had to change, there is a certain moment in which we are over-spanning over the [INAUDIBLE] Building.

What I create is here just a frame, and then the tree was no more necessary because there was a triangular frame going over all the way along. Because this is quite an aesthetical high. And then you see the trees and the fact they are situated like this. They are situated like that. Then I come back into the facade without very much touching the facade. And then I have here the gutter, the corner, and here also. And this is glazed outside. And this is then a frame who is filtering light into the interior. And this can be the elevation. A person may then be something like that. Because in this case, the height is something like 22 meters. It's a bit higher than before.

However, you see the whole thing stays independent of the surrounding buildings. Something who also encouraged me in this way-- I think it was not this easy-- but encouraged me very much to bring this idea of the layers of trees. Because looking in perspective, there are many of those trees. It is the fact that, as you know, it was in Canada. And Canada is one of the few countries, except Lebanon, who makes reference to a tree in his flag. He has the maple leaf. And I think this is so beautiful to have a tree as a sign. And I thought, well, this certainly works with the whole idea.

You see here also from the plaza, you see into the gallery. And those are two big windows, who are [INAUDIBLE]. You see here how the windows move down in steel. And then you see here also the independence of the facade from the galleria, and also the lacing of the galleria, it gives this shallow pattern. You see it here, not only in the ground, but also in the facade.

And here, some figures on the montage. So the construction process was also, in this case, extremely well-studied by the construction manager who achieved in a very short period the montage of the whole gallery using very rational system [INAUDIBLE] by itself. For example, we're putting support mounting the arcs at the end and moving them into the infinity position almost-- sliding them in those two tracks here and putting them into the infinity position. Because having built the ground of the galleria, it was almost impossible to circulate with a heavy crane in the interior. So they used a crane just in the entrance, and then they pulled through those elements one after the other, and put them there.

Also, those are photographed in the shop. If we can get this a little bit better focused. For me, as a European, this is very much North America because the pieces are so big, and the shops are ready to do those unbelievable big pieces. Just a half of a building, and build it at once, and then bring it. Then you see here also during the montage of the trees of the interior. Also always, you see welding on the side, a lot of welding and also a lot of bolts, welding links during the montage of the trees in the interior. And here at the end of the whole operation. This is during the night. You see at the end the plaza and then the galleria floor.

Now this is a completely different context. It's very much related to the use of materials. Working in a very old building, you might have reminiscence of part of the building who are, let's say, 700 years old, something like that. This is a building in Basel in [INAUDIBLE]. It's one of the oldest. Here is the city. The city council used to be there-- the very first city council-- and then they moved into the old city council [INAUDIBLE] so that the building is one of the very, very old buildings in Basel with wooden structures and also stone structures that we had to respect, and to treat with a lot of care, and also treat them with the people who are specialized in the treatment of it.

Why the material plays an important role? It is because the context by itself is so strong, that in my opinion-- or at least I have thought in this case-- I thought the way to overcome that in modern terms, it is very much relating it to modern material, for example, steel, glass, and other things, and also to introduce single pieces, and create a dialectic between new and old, almost leaving untouched the old parts. For example, leaving untouched the wood, however, having here a leg in steel. And also having here the staircase in steel, however, having those old walls here.

Renovated according to the conditions. What I have no explained is what I had to do. It is a small theater, a cabaret theater in the interior of this structure called [INAUDIBLE]. It's just a small place in which something like 50 or 60 persons can get together. This is the guard rope. It's a necessary minimum in infrastructure. So a guard rope was done. Then you see here the guard rope, how it opens the table of the guard rope. Then on the staircase going up into the upper level in which it was.

The theatre. You see here the staircase. The staircase is done by using glass. You see it from down to up and from up going down, and then this big piece of metal. This big piece of metal was also on the other side holding a big load coming up. Because one of the other things that we need to do is to create new static conditions for the new loads of the several theaters and the new uses of the house according to the new codes.

And you see here also again, the staircase as a single piece in the center of the building. And then also, this is through the staircase into the salle in which you see this is put here horizontal now. And you see here the wall, which is one of the oldest walls at the end of this space. This is a Gothic salle. For example, here you see a Gothic salle with the staircase. And then you have here the bridge going from the Gothic salle into the other salle. So you come in here. You go up, you got into the Gothic salle. And then you go into the space.

And here, during the construction of the piece, those are the steel pieces. And then here you have the people working on the shop and putting the pieces together. Many of the conclusion details was decided to do them on the on the shop, discussing with the people, not only calculating, but also very marginal by hand, saying how to conclude. You see it here also, how to do the holes. You see the details of the conclusion on the joints and many of those things. So in a way, you see the work of a main structural piece can become very much like a sculpture.

You see here also, this is the interior space of the salle. And this is the guard rope. Basically, we had done two new rooms. This is one. And this is another one. And then you see also here some details of the beams and also here, the guard rope. The guard rope is interesting because being in this space, I wanted to touch it as least as possible. However, it has to work as a guard rope. So it has some mirrors, and then it could be deployed and opened for the upper salle.

And this is the bar, an interior who could be opened and closed. And also the windows, I have to darken the space, then they can open and close, like a jacket when you get hot. And this is all the guard rope in which you see you have this ambiguity. It was necessary to lock the guard rope because it was only one person to serve the two guard ropes-- the upper and the lower. So it was necessary to lock this hear and then go up. So it was also possible to introduce this ambiguity.

So personally, I think if I can step back just to give you some comments on this work. Materials in this case helps very much to overcome the problem. Because it's such a responsibility to stay in front of a building that you are happy when you have a specialist, you have a so-called [? Dagmar ?] [? Pfleger, ?] who is almost thinking he's the man who looked for the monument, who is almost taking all the responsibility about things-- how you need to leave them, the things that you can touch, those that you can not touch.

And then at the other side, you get a certain freedom, even if very restrained, to then introduce several pieces and create a theme. In this case, one theme was the idea of the versatility. Things who open and close, the guard rope who can be transformed, the entrance, the doors.

And another theme was the central staircase who even if it was-- just to give you a small reference on this piece-- even if it was a piece, who basically was like this, we had a whole a very big, eccentric load coming in this place. And the old wooden roof was like that. And it was not able with regular beams to hold that. So we introduced a support here, and then recreated an element of the interior who was like that. And then here, another support.

Between those supports, we just had the balcony, and then here, we had the staircase that you saw before. This is the staircase-- quite steep, by the way. And the staircase was not touching here. It was almost floating, so that you see this is basically three articulated elements. This was articulated here. And the staircase is held here together. And then even from this element we hold, you see the roof.

Then in order to achieve a junction here, we had a piece that was like a neck done a certain incision between this load and the steel structure, so that people, in this case, could walk here and also go up through the staircase with a handrail. So this is the basic-- it was a sight. You saw also quite a free fall. And the other part, there was more or less anecdotal. There was a small piece, like the doors of the guard rope or the central guard rope.

This is also one of the early work. if in the previous one, the relation between modern and old. And the choice of the material plays an important role here. It was almost an exercise how to clad an existing shop, warehouse, and give him a new signification. And then the resources was too. The choice of the material, first, it needs to be a very economic or a very cheap material. So we decided to use aluminum crude and concrete. Crude because it is almost regular aluminum that you can get very easy. And then you can get it also corrugated. You can get it flat. You can get it in many ways. And it is easy to work with.

And then another resource was how to transform this building, not only with the cladding, but also finding a theme. And the theme was even through the limitation of the material. We create a big restriction, but it was a kind of picturesque. I mean picturesque in the meaning of painting. Each facade should appear like a different painting or like a different facade. So the material will create the unity, and the treatment of the material in each one of the facades will create the theme that it will make different a facade of the other.

For example, in this case, you see the south facade is done by using corrugated aluminum. The element of the corrugated aluminum, as you know, is something like that. Then we took those elements, and then we make a [INAUDIBLE]. And then we put the corrugated metal like that. So we became a double rigidity because the pieces with the transversal links became not only modulated, but also very rigid in its weight. So it permits to make quite a high element in the facade.

Then in order to emphasize this movement here, in cross-section, we cut them like this. And cut them like that. So that even looking from the front, the view of the [INAUDIBLE] will be even more accentuated. Even looking into the top of the building, the view of the [INAUDIBLE] will be clear, readable. And also because, this-- even if it is also aluminum-- it is put inclined. This will stay up here black because it is under the shadow, or it reclaims the light in another way.

Then in order to make more plastic and breathable, the client came and said, for safety reasons, I need a lot of light in this area here. And so we put lamps to the exterior of the facade, like that, small lamps. Alums But we took them far away from the facade so that you will see also the shadow of the lamps follows from time to time the curves, and then makes also drawings in the facade, not only the vertical component. And then this is a plastic relation.

Interesting also is that this is the south facade. It means the movement of the day and the hours of the day will also make a very significant change in facade itself. You see it here. You can also see well the shadows of the light and the reflections of the sun. And also this, you see here also, and the vertical vibration produced by the reflection of the sun in the facade. This is a work who has been done something like 12 years ago.

Depending in the hours of the day, the facade is extremely sensible when you get a very [INAUDIBLE] light or a vertical one. And then what is also interesting is that this shadow here is also pure aluminum. And here also you see the cut from which I spoke before. You see the way how it floats and moves over the concrete structure.

Then this was the other theme. This was the north facade. I spoke about the problem of the practicality is very general in the south facade. Now in the north facade, the problem was different because the north facade has just [INAUDIBLE] light . [INAUDIBLE] light means a very diffused light. Now how to emphasize the plasticity of whatever a thing in [INAUDIBLE] light. So I proposed to use an S profile, just cut out. This is one piece in metal, and the other one we have a piece to fix it. And again, another one. And those are pieces very, very long with a joint. Maybe they are 10 meters, 30 feet long. And then they have a joint and another joint, so as long as possible.

The [INAUDIBLE] of this situation is that you will get here quite a reflection. Here, you will get shadow. This will be almost black. Then you will get a bit less reflection going into this very high reflection, and then again less. And then it will break in shadow. So you will get not only a linear structure, but also in the linear structure, you will sensibilize the structure also to the [INAUDIBLE] light. And this here, again, you frame in a frame with the basement. And because we also had windows here who preexist, we also incorporate them in the whole longitudinal modulation, even an entrance into the back side, and even incorporating that into the whole building.

You see the leaning out effect. You see these parts who are more plastic. Also two interesting elements, this is the use of those plates here. Just trying to find all types of use of this element, we recreate here corrugated plates who are 70 meters long in one piece. The problem was just to put them on the side in one piece-- 70 meters from the top into the bottom and holding them here with a small element in the top, so that the very flat back side of east side confronted to the sunlight very horizontal and the morning sun. And then there was an elevator body here that needed to be cladded.

And in order to distinguish it, it was a proposition of using scales, like a fish. In German, I will say [INAUDIBLE]. But very big ones of aluminum, cladding it, turning around the corners, and also turning into the top. Even if the rest was angular, it was also a beautiful way in this facade to get this flat east side of the building, to get the two towers-- it was two-- with the scales going down like that. And then framing the whole thing, and using those 70 meters vertical lines, and presenting a very flat facade that during the day when the sun turns-- those elements has a tendency also to give a shadow against that and then became more plastic with also a small service door in the corner.

Each one of those facades could be conceived like a separate picture. Also the corner here was very important. The corner [INAUDIBLE] to put here on the [INAUDIBLE], which, until today, has not happened. The time was for economical reasons. Now how to give a global idea? Before that, I have to explain you also the doors. The west facade in opposition to the east facade and having almost the same light conditions-- sun raising and sun setting-- it was also done using those very big panels.

And then the lamps and the doors, when they are closed, for example, a possible lecture of the lamps. There are many lectures of things. They are like shields put at the top. They have a lamp behind. They give a transversal lighting. But if you look, for example, this light that you have there, you can imagine one lamp, another lamp, and a door. This is the other point. It is the eye.

I spoke about the painter's [INAUDIBLE]. It means different paintings, like different sculptures. But how to link them? The problem was, from the very beginning, it was a foreign body, a strange body. It was not something that we has done. We had to give life to this body. You saw the doors before. If I can step just a moment back, also, you see this place for the sculpture. You see it here again and then here.

You saw the doors and the facade. Now the scales and many other things. So if I do an axonometic of the building, we could say this is one side. And then I have here the gate. And then this is the building. Lorries come in and out every day-- a lot of them. Many lorries wait, the gates open, and the lorries come in, and then goes out. If I put the sculpture of the eye with those here, the whole building becomes a little bit like--


So the whole building is a kind of-- and the lorries coming out and in is like the history of Jonas. I want also to do another small drawing. You know that? It is the elephant and the snake, isn't it, of Saint-Exupéry. It's very important this kind of game in which the idea of-- in the beginning, the toy of the children, I make that with toys of my children. So it was an exercise for me to take the toys of my children and things of my house to hang the curtains, pencils, and whatever I found to do that.

| mentality of the thought takes absolutely no force to the complexity of the solution. You see what I mean? In the beginning, something can be extremely spontaneous and simple. I want to walk. Where I am going? You understand? That's the questions. But you know to walk is just a very natural thing. The thing is where my steps are bringing me, but I am also arriving there step by step. And a step is a very simple thing. And a very long trip needs to be started in a small step.

So sometimes, those thoughts, in my opinion, are [INAUDIBLE] from the picturesque to pass to the literal, and to give to the whole thing force, at least in my mind. If the people don't read it like that, let me tell you, it's not important. And I think here, as I tell you, surrounded by people, I want to communicate about an intimate experience. So I don't worry if it sometimes looks a little bit like a joke.

Then you see here the door, also, for example, the linearity. This is modular, and this is almost the same model. But this is a continuity in the door. There is also behind that, a very beautiful idea. It is the idea of a facade who can be transformed. I think in the transformation, I will come in my last talk to that about the metamorphosis and the idea of the metamorphosis.

This is a matter of evolution in architecture, an unbelievable matter. We disposed of not only mechanical and physical elements to create and recreate new architectures based in the idea of the metamorphoses. But also, I think we are mature also in our needs and in our understanding of culture to introduce those components in a major scale in architecture.

Could you imagine, for example, a whole facade who gets transformed? Not only like here who translates half of the facade, but the whole facade who gets transformed and can be like a curtain, open from one side to the other, or things like that. This is, in my opinion, feasible today, and certainly a challenge for the new generation, or for the evolution of the architecture.

You see all the pieces are very repetitive. They are all the same. Just the measures has been changed. It is like the measure and the inch is also the same.

And now, I would like to jump to another subject also important. Because it will show you at once that this is what I say before. That in many buildings, the construction process can be more or less relevant. When you are working as an engineer, the construction process is fundamental. For example, bridges built in the process of country living. The construction process is fundamental to understand the shape of the bridge or many other types of buildings.

In this case, it was not as much the construction process of the bridge itself, but the construction process of all the sites. This is a bridge in Valencia. And I would like to focus your attention, not on the bridge itself, but in the way it was built. The bridge is over an underground station. You will see it. There is a plaza down the bridge. This is the arc. They arc is inclined. I wanted to do an arc who incorporates in the city a kind of big sculpture.

And then you have here this light coming out from the ground. You see here also the bridge over the plaza. And there is [INAUDIBLE] a station for underground. So people come down and go into the station. You see here the entrance into the station. You see here also some details of the plaza itself covered by the bridge, and here also the plaza from the front where the light comes, bringing light into the station itself.

And here also, you see an interesting thing. It is the underground that works the whole day. It works only, let's say, until 1:00, and then at 4:00 or 5:00, it's closed. So I have done the entrances into the underground that they can be locked. So in the night, the entrance disappears, or it's almost part of the ground floor. You see when it is closed how it looks. And there behind, it is open. This is the process of opening, the interior.

This is also a very interesting material. It's very traditional, especially from [INAUDIBLE], from Valencia. The most brilliant exponents are in Barcelona in the works of [INAUDIBLE]. But in our region, there is a lot of small broken pieces of ceramic use for planning. so we use these broken pieces of ceramic, cladding the whole interior of the station and also white concrete.

This is the station, the interior. And this is daily light. Then this is the side. Sometimes I think the photograph of sides are even more interesting Also, the side is an event. It's extremely interesting.

Here, you see the [INAUDIBLE] finished. Also very interesting to see the light canons how they work. Because no artificial light is there in place. Also here, you see the light coming in. Also here, you see the upper part of the staircase in light, the holes here. The lamps you see down in [INAUDIBLE]. You see these broken ceramic lamps incorporated into the walls.

And this is the prefabricated roof of the station. So the station down the bridge was built simultaneously. And we had only 14 months to do both things together. So it was impossible to conclude the station and then build over the bridge. Because also, the vault is only the dimension for a certain type of load and not to hold the whole width of the bridge during construction. So this was after construction. You see how the skylight has been built in the plaza. And we have now to change the carousel.

So the problem was how to build the bridge when the station was under construction, or how to build a bridge and a station at the same time. Well, the solution is very reasonable. You build the bridge apart, and then you build the station. Once the station is finished, you move and put the bridge on its place.

These are also details of the windows of the entrances. And then this is the side during construction. Here is the bridge, and here is the whole of the station. This is the bridge during construction. And here was the side in which the station was being built. We have here also several views of the deck of the bridge in steel and welding. You see the massive steel piece who becomes the core of the arc, which spans over 170 meters and makes around 8500 feet.

Then you see the bridge here before it was transported and here, in this case, over the station. And to transport it, we just pulled it. You see it here. This is the people watching. It took just several hours. So the bridge started here, and then moved as the people watched. Interesting also to see the cross section of the bridge. You see the box guilder who is holding the torsion of eccentricity and inclined arc.

And then looking from the other side, you see the bridge and one end up, and another is up, and then almost in the definitive position. And then here, the bridge just after arriving into its infinity position. You see all some views of the bridge concluded with the open gate and the closed gate of the station, just to signify that the station is still there.

Now another project in which I would like to signify. I could also speak in this break about the relation between city and project in architecture. But I would like very much to resume my intervention to the material, and to the construction difficulties that we had, and about the basic idea of each one of those projects. In this case, I would like to explain you that.

The station is situated in a hill. And in a small scale, let's say this is the Lake of Zurich. The lake used to arrive here. And then this is [INAUDIBLE] hill from the glacier. Then there was a lot of trees here. Then people arrived and made the walls of the sea here, and then this became a flat area. And then they started building here. They also transformed that in the [INAUDIBLE] plan. I think that it became the ares of Bellevue in Zurich-- beautiful area-- with the hill of the [INAUDIBLE] promenade.

Later on, the Rhine Rhone came and made a cut here and leave two lines. And then our exercise in this situation of the [INAUDIBLE] was to enlarge the station and make it to a major station with a lot of traffic. Sometimes we have each two minutes one train. It's a very heavy traffic station and is important for the whole regional scheme.

Now looking to this particular part, I would like to emphasize the different character of the two parts who is still today conserved. This is very urban. And this is very green, with the very first houses built outside of the city. You see schools. And so the whole hill has a different character of [INAUDIBLE]. And now, the new intervention has considered the fact that there was a cut here and that we had to step back and cut more on the hill.

And in this situation, the basic idea was that I would like very much to conserve this border here and this situation there. And for that, we proposed a structure who will permit with a wall, with permanent anchorage. I will explain also why the permanent anchorage, who will hold the houses sometimes are here. And even also sometimes, you see in a particular case, it will even hold a big tree. And then we create gardens here in a parabola, conserving the character of the upper part and leaving here the possibility of people promenading over there, also people waiting here for the trains. Then having here an element to hide this part, leaving part of the anchorage accessible for supervision reasons.

And then having here the other two lines and recreating in the underground even a shop, mall, who permits to make more safe and more interesting the link, and also to have a series of shops in the underground who works. And then using contrast to that, putting here a light canopy, and then having the suspension of the catenarias, and then the trains here. So this is the scheme of the station just so you can know the scale. You will find something like that.

Many other projects, there is always in my opinion-- or has been until now-- necessary to take an approach to the problem first of all, relating it to the city, second relating it to the construction. For example, all this over here became very heavy because we have earth, we have the gardens here, the houses are here. It was necessary for safety reasons to make an independence between the wall and this part. This part can maybe fall, but the wall will still stay there, and the houses will be safe, for example, in case of incident in the interior of the station.

And many of the folks like that, technical nature, was conditioning not only the process of construction. Because sometimes we have had from here to there something only 90 feet or something like that. So houses was here, so it was very narrow, and sometimes, we are getting here into the ground for technical needs. We are getting until 45 feet underground, which is quite much. And so it was the site by itself, also the fact that we had to build, leaving the train circulating the whole time, so the traffic in the station was never interrupted.

So it was quite a challenge in such a tight side to try to combine all the safety of the use of the station during the site, and at the same time, thinking that from here to there, sometimes we just had, I think, 27 meters between the space in which we could work. So this was quite an interesting. However, I think the letter of the station also needs to be another pure technical one. And even the technical problems was quite a challenge.

I was quite nervous because it was one of the first jobs of being responsible on the one side of the architect, but also of the engineering. It was quite a big thing. I thought, well, we should also have a little bit of fun with the station. The basic idea of the station is not only the whole functional complex and also the European context. There is another one. I wanted for the first time to experiment with the body and with an atomic thought. I thought of a gesture, and I started with my hand.

The first thing was the idea of an open hand, which is the mother of sincerity and openness. And from the open hand, I chose this part. And this part became the column.

Also here in the corners, also there and here. You see the vault turning around with different pillars in steel. You see here also a detail of the pipe in steel and the support and the pendular pillar in the front. This is the place where we used to fix the clock. Then you see here during the site.

You see the shapes of the form works coming from one side. This [INAUDIBLE] was finished, then we started from the other side coming in. Also a lot of provisions on the small bridge was necessary to be built. And then the train circulating during the site. Here is the regular train in the station. You see it also here from the top. We were very close to the houses around. This became promenade. You see here the bridge in steel, pre-fabricated, to be mounted in most [INAUDIBLE].

You see also here the same bridge with the connectors for the concrete. It was a mixed structure with a concrete plate. Also all the other provisional structures and here building the canopy. You see here very well a cut on the shape. Then you see the montage of one column.

This is also a point that I should explain very fast. The station is [INAUDIBLE]. The station is not flat. A train is coming from a tunnel and going into a tunnel and, more or less, the center is horizontal. So we built all the station like that. And even the columns had like that. But you don't see it because they are also inclined. If they were vertical, you will immediately see it. But in all the directions, they are inclined. Even the galleria is like that. So the whole station is like a sausage.

You see here also some details of the form works, sometimes quite complex, with very good people making the concrete on site. There was two groups of people. And this is the galleria just after the finish. This was the original project. Today, they have many things. As it happens, today, everybody wants to put his name here, and then they had to put plastic bags here in the interior, but it's life, isn't it?

Then you see here again, during the site-- always observe the site. The site can be extremely beautiful by itself, even in a certain disorder. Sometimes you have real openings, and then the sun comes into the interior in a way that you will not see later when it is concluded. It might have been on a site if you like the construction, and so it's a very inspiring and beautiful place, with also these smells, all kinds of smells.

And you see here the form works, the [INAUDIBLE], the joints. When you work by exposed concrete, you have to take a lot of care with all the things. You have to coordinate very well the installation, for example, no suspended ceilings. Looking back, you see those are the holes for the lamps. And then all the lamps are here, then the loudspeakers are here.

Everything has to be incorporated. And the coordination between projects, and the different types of installations and disciplines that comes, they have to be very well-coordinated. It needs a very big effort to achieve that effectively-- the emergency lighting and the other lighting, they are all incorporated into the concrete. Also, the lamps are part of the concrete, and loudspeakers are here so that the pure shape of the concrete comes out. You see it here also. And this is also when you arrive.

So also another idea that I wanted to create-- a very strong structure who dominate on the shop. But with the time, the shops are dominating the situation, which is also natural. The [INAUDIBLE] was very austere, very little element to mark because they were so clear and so easy to find. Here this is a shop as it was in the beginning, and then the light. This is the concrete. This is this, and then the concrete over there. This is one column that we couldn't build, and then we just had to suspend the whole with those two members.

Then you see here the curve of the station. Also, you see this is another event, a pure engineering event. In plan and in elevation, the tracks was given by engineers. But to have a curve and then to have the possibility to look the station who is 280 meters long, which is 880 or 900 feet long. But it seems to be much longer because you don't see the end. So the curve helps a lot and the fact that you see the shape turning around like a [INAUDIBLE], having this kind of rotational geometry in which things are turning.

So the idea of the rotational geometry is also very much emphasizing the idea of the dynamic of the trains turning around. So in a way, also following very softly the [INAUDIBLE] of the engineers, it was possible to achieve a kind of dynamic. And also the repetition was a good thing for the modularity. All the pieces, all the columns were equal. All the segments of the room-- just sometimes we had to do some concessions in the longitudinal modulation, but we could clarify that because we made the joints between the form works quite wide. And then sometimes, we made them shorter, sometimes a little bit wider.

Using that, we could achieve [INAUDIBLE]. It is also interesting to see that, in fact, this station is almost a non-station because it disappears, hidden behind the roofs in the middle of the city. You see these are trains passing by, effects of the lighting in the night, shadows in the concrete. The proximity of the center of the city into the station and also the relation between city and station, in my opinion, is very important to understand the whole project.

It was not a place to do a gesture with the station. It was a place to incorporate the heavy traffic of trains and to hide it, but without covering it. It could be also possible to go over the whole thing and make a new apartment. But in my opinion, I started explaining the topographical situation and the very particular situation in this place, with the beautiful housing up in the top of the hill and the city. So I think it was correct to proceed like that.

Now is just as small parentheses to explain you an experience with concrete. Which I was in charge from the Swiss Association of Concrete Makers to do them a pavilion for an exhibit for an interior room and who could be used again later on for someone else. I produced this machine as a very early try doing a machine in which I wanted to try to put the concrete in movement, with concrete lights, with heavy concrete-- with all types of concrete, but concrete movement is a rare thing.

I don't know if you know [INAUDIBLE] who was the founder of the prestressing. The very first patent in prestressing was done by Jean Freysinnet. He studied prestressing concrete and making wings for planes. This plane was never achieved, but he has done all kinds of-- In the '30s and in the '40s, especially in the '30s and '40s-- '20s and in the early century-- people was extremely daring in these ideas and the hope of the use of the materials. And I would like to just show you that here. Look that I wanted to achieve forms who could be extremely related to the body. When I say, to the body, I mean--

Let's say, formally, you see the inspiration should strongly be related to the idea of a certain sensuality of the usual forms. And just if you hold that in your mind, we can go forward with the slides. You will maybe see [INAUDIBLE]. You will also see circular elements turning around. Also, you will see a very tactile and soft way to use concrete, in a way in which you would never think. So it's not only moving the concrete, but also giving it almost a very sensual, like the idea of the flesh, the skin. It is possible to achieve not using extremely sophisticated elements. So the idea of the organicity, the idea of the detail, the idea of how a piece will link to the other in this place. Something

The detail by itself and the shape of the detail became by itself more than the result of a very elaborate geometry. The result of this will be a section, for example, from here, and also, who permits us, as you see, to recreate, as a dream, the idea of breasts. Now I will show you this project, but I will not do any comment on the construction. I will just show you the project, which is also another station who follows the style of [INAUDIBLE].

And I think you have to think that this object that was built by extremely careful and gifted people who have been working there, putting their hands to put this concrete, to put this metal. And I think it's also very important to start watching the buildings from the inside into the origin, not only from the origin into the end. You see what I mean?

It's very beautiful to understand the site as a process, the way things are put, and also to get close to people who are on the site. because they are fundamental in the fact they are those who put their hands. And if someone risk their life, it's certainly not the architect. They are the people who are on the site who do that.

So this is the station in Lyon. The station in Lyon, I will not give much explanation. Basically, it's built in concrete, aluminum, steel, and glass. It has also granite in the pavings. The concrete is white. It's clear concrete. It's using only white cement and natural aggregate, natural gravels from the area, and sand-- a little bit gray, light sand.

And it's interesting when you use this type. You get a very light concrete, but also it is something in the color of the concrete who remembers the site because the gravels and everything is from the area. So it is not pure white. It's sometimes a little beige or a little bit gray.

You see here some views of the roof. You see the steel structure and the reflects of the sunlight here, also here in the aluminum. You see the facade behind just using pure concrete and then the glass in between. You see it also here. The esplanade, those are cobblestone and granite. And the hand-rails are all done in concrete. And also, that's steel and glass.

And then also, you see there are rules of the use of the material. For example, the steel never touched the ground. The steel is always supported by the concrete, like in the library, for example. We had this spindle in steel. The steel arrives here, and then there is a beam of concrete here, so there is not a direct relation between the supporting element and the ground.

You see here is the gallery who brings from the airport into the station, and then the back of the station. Here is the galleria from the other side, the roof in aluminum. You see here also another view from the front, and also, here is the wing. You see here also some details of the wing.

This wing is all south-oriented. We chose the inclination in the angle of the solstice. So after middle June, the sun is out of the interior of this space. And until November, it stays out and then comes again. And the facade during the day, gets sunny light in the interior of the hall, who permits to have almost a very low climitization. And the roof works, even if it is open.

This is the frontal support. Here also some details of the steel and the concrete. Also here, the way this concrete is, in my opinion, almost elephantic. It's a bit like the feet of an elephant touching the ground. Then here from the front, you see all the water pipes and support of the roof. The roof is basically an arc of 140 meter span. And then all the force comes into this points, comes into this area here.

You see also here is, in my opinion, quite a nice detail how the concrete bend and also the border-- sometimes sharp borders, sometimes flat, sometimes curved. You see here also the interior of the building. Once you are in the building, you see through the transparency into the concrete galleria. This is the concrete galleria bringing into the trains. You see here, this is the concrete galleria with the staircases going down into the platforms.

Also the modulation, this has been not prefabricated, only partially prefabricated. And then also big pieces were cast on site of white concrete. Concrete and steel underground is a granite. And here, we have concrete all over. This is concrete. This is also polished concrete. This is concrete, and this is concrete. Everything that you see here, except the armatures of the windows who are sometimes open.

This is also interesting. When we don't have to cover except the train, we leave it open. So for example, at the end of the station, the whole structure stays open and only partially covered because we are covering the ladder platform. Also, you see the complexity of the triangular structure, modulated going up with this cut here-- a very thin and tiny cut in the concrete.

Also, this element, there is a tunnel because the train can pass through the station in a big speed. So what we have done is just close the triangles. Those triangles here are closed with another triangle. So it's kind of repetitive, however, it will get more and more closer into the center and more open into the end. You see also from outside how the sun penetrates from the west side into the interior of the structure.

And here also, this is a point that I will do two sketches to this point why I think it is interesting. The first sketch is related to those elements. I was interested in the idea of recreating an instructor who is based, in a way, in certain proportions strongly related to the human body. This is one idea. So many of them hold the station. And the whole thing became a kind of modular basis. So this is one point.

And the second point I think is also very important to understand-- the roof, as you have seen, the shape of the station is that here. Let's say this shape of the station is this. This is the shape of the station. The idea of this shape would be generated by the idea of the eye.

And this is important, because someone will say that a the painter Raphael will not have arms. He will be such a good architect. He could certainly not be a painter, but a good architect. Because a working instrument of an architect is very much related to the eye. It's the vision. It's the faculty of seeing, and judging, and inventing things. There are two eyes and the eyes of the mind to invent and to combine things.

So in this way, I want also to underline something. All those projects in which I has been working has been also possible, not only because these people who execute them and who I appreciate so much, but also because many people have been helping me with their hands, making models, making drawings in my office. And so they are all participants of this. And , certainly, they contribute a lot to the projects.

And you see here, for example, this is the central gallery going from one side to another. And this is also the end with a buttress. It is done in concrete who makes the change into the arc in steel. This is the beginning of the arc. You see also the interior with the concrete, with the glazing, and then the interior space with the terraces. You see also two views of the interior space.

And also here, the glazing facades you see in shadow because the roof is producing a shadow in the interior. And then here, two views of the station in light. Those two slides define the end of my talk. I would like very much to thank you for your attention and thank to the school for giving me the opportunity to speak to you. Thank you very much.